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    非遺傳承人任鶴林:這一輩子,就活給了木版年畫
      中國城市文化網  時間:2018-3-19 15:37:29    www.tztmbx.com  來源:工人日報 余嘉熙 通訊員 王佳寧    收藏本頁

     

    圖①為任鶴林正在雕刻年畫印版。

    在河南開封鼓樓區中心區域南書店街深處,坐落著一處仿古二層建筑。一抬頭,刻有“開封木版年畫博物館”幾個大字的匾額映入眼簾。歷史的魅力如馥郁的酒香,從薄霧中飄散而來。

    這座博物館的創辦人是69歲的任鶴林,也是河南省首批非物質文化遺產項目木版年畫傳承人。40年來,他苦心求索傳統木版年畫歷史,傳承、復興、創新傳統年畫制作工藝。用他的話來說,“這一輩子,就活給了木版年畫。”

    圖②為任鶴林正在雕刻年畫印版。

    40載“門上春秋”

    踩著昏暗的階梯,踏上二樓,光從門縫里漏出來。在200多平方米的木版年畫博物館內,擺滿了任鶴林從世界各處搜集的史料及年畫,展板、老照片等展示了木版年畫的“前世今生”及制作工藝。在雕版工作室的桌子上,放滿了已完工的版,整個屋子單調卻飽滿。

    1970年,任鶴林畢業于河南大學美術系,1978年從蘭考調到開封參加開封朱仙鎮年畫出版社的籌備工作。從此,他便與木版年畫結下不解之緣。

    “偌大的河南,竟找不到一張原汁原味的木版年畫,沒有了歷史,何談傳承?”剛剛從事木版年畫的收集工作,任鶴林便陷入了老版年畫和雕版蹤跡難尋的困境。

    任鶴林說,開封木版年畫雖然歷史悠久,但和天津楊柳青年畫、四川綿竹年畫等相比,卻命運多舛,尤其是歷經戰爭和“文革”后破壞嚴重。為了恢復傳統、梳理發展脈絡,任鶴林毫不猶豫地踏上了找尋老版木版年畫的征途。

    1985年,聽說上海魯迅紀念館藏有一批開封木版年畫,任鶴林隨即前往探尋,卻前后兩次遭到拒絕。偶然的機會,他得知魯迅先生收藏的年畫是蘭考老鄉、著名的版畫藝術家劉峴所贈。于是,任鶴林拿著劉峴的親筆介紹信,終于近距離觀看到這批他眼里的“珍寶”。

    “當看到工作人員戴著白色手套,推著放有古老年畫的車向我走近時,我有點兒不敢看,有種見到寶貝的敬畏之心。”任鶴林回憶說,這26幅珍品對中國木版年畫的研究工作意義重大,其中,《劉海戲蟾》被公認為朱仙鎮木版年畫乃至中國木版年畫的巔峰之作。

    正是這份熱愛甚至癡迷,任鶴林后來專門組織了一批技法嫻熟的手藝人,將這26幅年畫重新整理、復刻,供以套印、傳播。

    40年時間,任鶴林走遍全國各地,遍訪名家,累計投入60多萬元,終于搜尋到300多件珍貴年畫史料(復印件)及1000余件年畫作品,并對劉峴、魯迅、劉鐵華、王子珍等人為延續開封木版年畫作的貢獻進行挖掘梳理。

    2007年,任鶴林出資創辦開封木版年畫博物館,這也成為國內外年畫收藏研究者必去之所。

    圖③為2017年,任鶴林帶開封木版年畫走進南美。

    寸步不讓的“手上工匠”

    一把刻刀、一塊木板、一雙布滿老繭的手,一幅畫卷說盡滄桑……這就是任鶴林40載的執著堅守。

    有人說,木版年畫是任鶴林少有的鋒芒,這種鋒芒背后,是他對木版年畫單純而熾熱的守護。

    經過多年來對傳統年畫細致深入的研究,任鶴林提出,開封是中國木版年畫的發源地。“唐代業已成熟的雕版技術和宋代紙張術的廣泛應用,是開封出現最早的版印門神畫的關鍵所在。《東京夢華錄》和《清明上河圖》關于木版年畫的記載和描繪,可為佐證。”

    人們普遍認為,木版年畫發源于朱仙鎮,任鶴林卻指出這“是違背歷史的”。不過,他強調,“我對起源的較真并無惡意,但一個涉及中國文化起源的歷史問題,其定名、定位的準確性非同小可。”

    除了學術上“較真”,對于開封傳統木版年畫技藝的堅守,任鶴林也寸步不讓。用他的話說,在木版年畫上能找到中國的“工匠精神。”

    “當看到有些所謂的藝術家,不負責任地把年畫隨意炮制時,我的心在流血。”任鶴林說。退休前,他組織開封年畫老藝人一起,將搜集來的300多幅年畫按1∶1比例復刻,要求從畫面到文字一律服從原版,力求恢復原畫原貌,精益求精。

    在復刻的年畫上,任鶴林特別強調藝術的原真性、造型色彩的精準性。他堅持遵循雕版套印工藝,每一條線都是一點點還原繪制而成,一刀一劃皆見古畫神韻。

    “那段時間每天凌晨1點前沒睡過覺,身體健康也大受影響,但我不后悔。”重新刻版歷時6年,任鶴林硬是用年邁的雙手握著刻刀,一絲不茍地與質量較勁,完美再現開封木版年畫的歷史風貌和藝術魅力。

    如今,年近古稀的任鶴林,在工作臺前一坐仍是幾個小時。成年累月,手上的繭子積了一層又一層。“人這一輩子只有專心干一件事,才能把這件事干精干好。所以,我到死也得為木版年畫奔走呼號!”任鶴林說。

    任鶴林為來博物館的參觀者講解年畫的歷史。

    尋找木版年畫“接班人”

    在木版年畫博物館中,放著撲克牌、貼紙、絲巾、T恤等新潮的物件,似乎和有著歷史氣息的年畫格格不入。

    而細心的人會發現,這些小東西有一個共同特征,就是都印有木版年畫圖案。作為博物館對外開放時的宣傳紀念品,這些都由任鶴林自費制作。他希望通過這些現代產品,讓木版年畫和年輕人之間建立“鏈接”。

    這也是任鶴林和他的博物館想盡辦法宣傳開封木版年畫的舉措之一。

    “工藝品商家們為了提高銷量,多用印刷品來替代手工年畫。”任鶴林的兒子李力說,“若干年后,如果沒有人繼承雕版師的工作,雕不出好的作品,印不出創新的樣式,恐怕連商家也得另謀他路了。”

    事實上,優秀傳統文化弘揚并不容易。任鶴林最擔心的就是傳統木版年畫工藝的傳承與創新問題,尤其是今后的年輕人不再喜歡木版年畫。

    “年畫技藝在傳承方面已是青黃不接,如果再不大力培養傳承人,開封木版年畫技藝將面臨中斷的危險。”為了讓木版年畫長久傳承下去,任鶴林不斷外出參展、演講,與多所高校建立聯系,將自己的博物館作為高校藝術實踐基地,義務為學生授課解惑。

    然而,木版年畫的繪制、雕版、印刷程序繁雜,讓年輕人接受起來需要時間和過程。對此,任鶴林也有清醒認識:“藝術要不斷發展,就要不斷創新,走向更廣闊的天地。”

    因此,任鶴林不但注重在國內研究木版年畫藝術,還赴德、英、意、法等國以及中國臺灣、香港等地進行年畫專題展演,且著述甚豐。

    “我們現在急需一大批任鶴林這樣的優秀人才,賦予非物質文化遺產更強的生命力,發揮出民族文化特有的品牌和資源優勢,同時構建‘非遺項目+保護+技藝傳承+傳習普及+產業轉化’的合理發展結構,才能更好地堅定文化自信,弘揚中華優秀傳統文化。”鄭州大學文化產業中心主任汪振軍教授說。

    讓任鶴林感到欣慰的是,國家越來越重視木版年畫的搶救性挖掘,這更堅定了他對木版年畫的信心。

    他說,“等了40年,終于盼來木版年畫的春天!”(本文圖片均為李力提供)

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