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    廢棄煤礦也能成為文化遺產?工業遺產應如何保護
      中國城市文化網  時間:2017-11-21    www.tztmbx.com  來源:中國新聞網 宋宇晟    收藏本頁

    “陽煤集團已有67年煤炭開采的歷史,由于資源枯竭,陽煤三礦的關停和轉型是一件不得不面對的現實課題。”陽泉煤業(集團)有限責任公司副總經理王付云日前在一場研討會上這樣說到。

    陽煤三礦豎井井架。陽煤供圖

    類似資源枯竭的礦區在中國并不少見,而隨著時間的推移、技術的進步,越來越多的工廠、礦區即將轉型。如何讓工廠、礦區走出一條工業生產之外的發展路徑?陽煤給出的答案是將礦區轉變為“文化遺產”。

    對于大多數中國人來說,“工廠”、“礦區”這些詞語似乎還很難和“文化遺產”搭配起來。但事實上隨著歷史的演進,這些工業建筑正在成為一種文化遺產。

    如果從1907年保晉公司將該礦井命名為“第三礦廠”算起,到2018年關井,陽煤三礦已經走過了111年歷史。而礦區的豎井主、副井井架及主提升設備為原蘇聯專家于1950年設計制造。記者了解到,這套至今仍在使用的設備已屬文物保護單位。當地正委托某團隊對“三礦實施發展旅游項目”制定可行性研究報告。

    該可行性報告中給出的設想。圖片來源:報告截圖

    記者注意到,這份可行性研究報告給出了這樣的計劃——依托三礦礦區、廠房建設煤炭工業文明遺址公園,并將該遺址公園打造成有游客接待和服務功能的“城市會客廳”。

    中國工業遺產聯盟秘書長周嵐幾年前就已開始關注國內工業遺產的保護、利用狀況。在她看來,工業遺產保護的問題正在慢慢引起大家重視。“無論政府層面還是普通百姓,越來越多的人認識到包括工業遺產在內的文化遺產的重要性。”

    不過她同時對中新網(微信公眾號:cns2012)記者表示,“在工業遺產保護方面,我們仍有很大提升空間”。事實上,中國國內工業遺產發展時間并不長。相比國外,國內工業遺產保護甚至可以說還處于起步階段。

    幾年前,周嵐就曾撰文指出,工業遺產建筑的外觀大多粗獷、樸實,其外觀遠不如古建筑藝術繁復考究,因此“大多數人認為從生產領域淘汰下來的工業建筑是廢棄物”。

    資料圖:景德鎮百年陶瓷工業遺產博物館 王昊陽 攝

    但并非所有廢棄廠房都毫無價值,其中的一些恰恰記錄中國工業發展的歷程。“我們祖先留下來的東西很多。但是這些從古至今留下來的東西是否能都算做遺產、需要保護?我覺得不是的。有價值保留下來,才能稱為遺產,沒有價值就算做遺物。”周嵐說。

    她告訴記者:“我們對工業文化遺產的認定有這樣幾個標準——是否具備歷史價值、科技價值、社會文化價值和藝術價值;同時還要看遺產的原真性和完整性。”

    那么我們應該如何對待工業遺產?國家文物局原副局長張柏認為,保護性是第一原則,“核心就是保持遺產的原真性、完整性”。“像陽煤三礦,它整體結構就是這個遺產最重要的骨架。”

    周嵐則認為,在保護工業建筑的基礎上,其中一些“有形的工業設備、檔案資料也很重要”,“同時還要挖掘無形的東西”。“現在社會都強調工匠精神、創新精神、企業家精神、誠信精神,這些都是工業社會里推崇的,也是工業文化的一部分。這類精神我們也要以各種形式傳承、傳播下去。我覺得這一點是需要強調的。”

    資料圖:始建于1935年的西安大華紗廠被“改造”為西安首個工業遺產博物館。作為陜西省具有代表性的工業遺產,其舊址已入選了第三次全國文物普查“百大新發現”之一。張遠 攝

    和古代文化遺存不同,現代的工業遺產多是曾經工業生產的場所。從生產場所變為文化遺產,其中生產者的角色轉變也至關重要。

    周嵐指出,目前很多企業正面臨產業轉型升級的問題。“技術在革新,社會在進步,企業就必然面臨轉型。如果工業遺產保護利用可與產業轉型升級結合起來是非常好的。原先的員工經培訓后轉崗,成為新的產業園員工,也解決他們的問題。”

    首都博物館研究員程旭也直言,保護工業遺產必然“要和人發生聯系”,“特別是其中的‘原住民’,這些人也是那個時代活的‘遺產’”。

    談及此,周嵐顯得信心十足。“以前大家會覺得故宮很無味,離我們很遠。但現在故宮做的很多東西讓大家覺得很親切、很好玩。我們的工業遺產也完全可以這么做。現在已經有一些設計是針對工業遺產的保護利用,有的設計會將廢舊廠房改造成民居。我也曾看到一個地方將工業遺產改造成非常漂亮的酒店。這其實也是對大眾的引導,給大家展示其中的工業美。”

    對此,國家文物局原副局長張柏坦言,一個完整的工業遺產能夠很好地呈現工業發展的歷程,同時也能夠被很好地開發利用。這些遺產“是留給子孫后代豐富的財富,并不是包袱”。

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