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    日本企業的“隱瞞鏈”文化
      中國城市文化網  時間:2017-11-2    www.tztmbx.com  來源:www.tztmbx.com    收藏本頁

      從三菱、鈴木被曝涉嫌篡改燃油效率等數據,到此次神戶制鋼造假事件。近幾年的時間中,那個曾經讓無數汽車愛好者心馳神往的汽車強國日本漸漸露出了頹勢。一次又一次被曝出的丑聞雖然看起來各自獨立毫無聯系,卻一步步將日本汽車企業百年以來樹立的“誠信”二字砸得粉碎。伴隨著這些知名汽車企業和相關制造行業的相繼落馬,這場席卷全日本的失信風波似乎才剛剛掀起了一角。

      

      2016-2017,丟掉招牌的兩年

      神戶制鋼成立于1905年,是日本第三大鋼鐵聯合企業。它的業務領域主要包括:鋼鐵、焊接材料、鋁、銅、鈦制品等等。作為汽車行業重要的原材料供應商,神戶制鋼的客戶遍布日本本土、亞洲、美洲、歐洲等多個國家和地區。像我們能說得上名字的日本汽車品牌,幾乎都或多或少的使用了神戶制鋼提供的原材料。就是這樣一家全球500強的企業,卻在今年8月公司內部調查時暴露了部分鋁、銅制品出廠數據被篡改,將不達標產品出售的行為。

      

      今年9月,日產汽車因被曝出使用沒有審核資格的員工來負責整車檢查,近日向日本交通省申請召回38款車型,共計約為116萬輛。而緊隨其后,斯巴魯社長也在10月27日公布其群馬縣的兩家工廠都存在使用“正在培訓之中的員工”來進行新車最后檢查的情況。預計將會召回包括“翼豹”在內的多款斯巴魯車型,以及豐田委托生產的“86”車型,總計約為25.5萬輛。

      除此之外,還有去年三菱、鈴木涉嫌篡改燃油效率數據的事件,與持續多年的高田安全氣囊安全隱患事件。在2016-2017年期間,日本本土企業出現了如此多起“造假”的丑聞,其中還有不少嚴重影響了產品的安全性。這不由得讓我們驚呼,曾經的那個以“工匠精神”著稱的日本到底怎么了?

      “誠信文化”成了壓死駱駝的最后一根稻草

      和美國鼓勵創新,敢于冒險的企業文化有所不同,日本的文化從根源上就顯得保守、務實。這也是為什么“誠信”這兩個字在日本國民心中的分量甚至超越了生命。

      從出生開始,父母就會教導小朋友誠實守信,從幼兒園到大學畢業,學校和家長在傳授日本年輕人“知識”的同時,也將誠信作為立足之本深深地印在了大和民族的血脈里。走入社會,這種以誠信為本的做人準則也會讓所有人都非常重視自己的信譽,因為一旦失信,所要承擔的后果是不可想象的。輕則親友疏離,重則遭到全社會的唾棄。

      

      而日本誠信文化除了要求做人誠實守信之外,在企業中有著“從一而終”的潛規則。筆者身邊的一位日本朋友就曾經向筆者吐槽,很不理解周圍的同事為什么跳槽率那么高,慢一點的3至5年,快一些的甚至3至5個月就會換一家公司。在她看來,想得到更好的發展和待遇,忠誠度是首位的(甚至在某些時候高于個人能力和合作意識)。跳槽并不是完全被禁止,但像美國公司或是中國公司這樣頻繁跳槽是不多見的。而且盡管名義上日本已經取消了曾經的“終身雇傭制”,但仍然有許多企業將不主動裁員作為公司準則之一,所以員工也用不離不棄、盡忠職守對公司予以回報。或許是受到日本戰國時代大名和家臣關系的影響,不少的日本企業家將公司視為“家族”,如果有人背叛了自己的“家族”,那這樣的人也難以得到其他“家族”的信任。

      如此根深蒂固的誠信文化,按理來說只會讓企業越做越強,越走越遠。為什么卻導致大量日本企業欲蓋彌彰,隱瞞不報。甚至上下串通,造假舞弊呢?三菱汽車社長相川哲郎是這樣對媒體說的。

      

      “因為我們是與日產聯合開發K-Car,從管理者的角度深知必須要達到燃油效率的目標,否則我們將難以面對日產公司,也無法在跟其他車企的競爭中獲得優勢。為了達到這個目標,管理層抱有相當強烈的期待和信心,這些壓力就直接由下屬部門承擔了。當員工們發現事實上目前的技術難以達到目標時,這個問題已經無法修正。在高層的期許與對公司的忠誠雙重壓力下,他們走投無路就會選擇篡改數據。”

      暴露只是時間的問題

      上述的大部分事件有一個共通點,那就是它們幾乎都是集體性、長期性的行為。

      神戶制鋼副社長梅原尚人對媒體表示:“遺憾的是,經過縝密的調查,這樣的數據篡改事件并非首次也不是個人行為。神戶制鋼旗下的部分產品從十年前開始就一直在篡改數據。而且此次的事件牽涉包括神戶制鋼高層在內的數十名員工。”

      高層會幫助底層員工隱瞞篡改數據的行為,這聽起來有些可笑對吧?但事實就是如此。我們可以舉個例子:員工A一時疏忽填錯了一批原材料的數據,該批材料卻因為雙方的信任正常的售出了。因為擔心更正數據會暴露之前的錯誤,員工A只好將錯就錯繼續用錯誤的數據和材料。這件事無意中被他的上司B發現,上司B認為雖然員工A犯錯在先,但自己也難逃失察之責。而且事已至此為了避免再生事端,只好幫助員工A隱瞞。而上司B的問題最終也被高管C發現,為了避免社長和董事會的問責,高管C無奈加入成為了幫兇。自此,一條串滿了“螞蚱”的“隱瞞鏈”就誕生了。

      

      人無完人,難免犯錯。但知錯,并且及時改正才是對自己負責、對公司負責、對所有客戶負責。可是,在面對犯錯后極高的負罪感和幾乎被社會拋棄的結局,無數的人在錯誤面前選擇了隱瞞。十年來,神戶制鋼就是依靠著這樣一條條的“隱瞞鏈”將一個巨大的錯誤埋在所有人的心里。而能夠想象到的是,在日本近乎病態的“誠信文化”背后,像這樣的企業絕對不止神戶制鋼一家。

      整個日本制造業正面臨著一場即將到來的滅頂之災,神戶制鋼也好、高田氣囊也罷,都只是這場災難之前的一點征兆而已。

      如果還有未來,該何去何從

      回顧上述諸多事件不難看出,越是試圖繼續隱瞞,往往下場越慘。高田的拖延戰術雖然成功的將問題延緩了15年,最終換來的卻是宣告破產,名譽掃地。相比之下,像神戶制鋼這樣自我審查,主動公開問題的企業,雖然還是免不了要進行道歉、賠償甚至承擔法律責任,但在消費者和客戶心中他們仍有挽回信譽的可能。

      

      無論是原材料造價的供應商,還是采購了這些材料的車企。主動發現問題、主動承認錯誤、主動提供解決方案和主動采取監管措施是解決誠信問題的四個基本步驟。

      作為不直接面對消費者的供應商,應當主動與相關車企溝通賠償方案和召回方案,勇于承擔由于自己的問題帶來的損失。只有幫助車企留住消費者,才能讓自己留住更多的客戶;而對于車企來說,雖然他們也是“造假事件”當中的受害者,但站在消費者的角度來看,他們同樣也是“加害者”。不推諉,不喊冤,實事求是的和消費者換位思考,才能讓消費者與車企換位思考。

      既是機遇,也是警示

      長久以來,“日本制造”四個字代表著追求卓越和重視品質,但制造業的丑事頻出也讓這個擁有兩萬余家百年以上企業的國家站在了風口浪尖。當年,日系汽車在美系德系的夾攻之下艱難前行,用實打實的品質和價格換來的金字招牌,在遭受了一波又一波打擊之后充分的展現了什么叫做“站得越高,摔得越狠”。

      

      如今,我國的自主品牌汽車也已經從原本的“能跑就行”逐漸變得注重品質和工藝,此次日本車企的集體陷落既是一個千載難逢的超車時機,也是一記振聾發聵的警鐘。希望日本車企能夠痛定思痛,堅強的從失敗中站起來,也希望中國車企能夠從這些事件之中學會反思,避免重蹈覆轍。


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