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    從柯達退市談老牌企業的創新之道
      時間:2012-1-16      來源:中國城市文化網    編輯:admin【字體: 】【收藏】【關閉

      文/劉杰克

      昔日膠片業的“黃色巨人”,柯達公司在經歷了130多年的歷史沉淀后也不得不面臨將要退出歷史舞臺的現實。美國時間1月3日,柯達官網發布公告,由于股價連續30個交易日低于1美元,紐約證券交易所已對其發出退市警告。如果股價在未來6個月內仍無起色,柯達將面臨摘牌、退市的命運。

      根據調查顯示,市場上只有少部分企業可以存活超過40年,鑒于當代社會科技日新月異的更新速度,這個年限只會越來越短。相應地,以柯達和諾基亞為首的眾多老牌企業紛紛陷入創新的困境,也一時成為市場廣泛熱議的話題,怎樣積極正確的迎接改變,實現成功的創新是每一個想要長期在市場存活的品牌所面臨的共同問題。在本文中,作為一名長期研究和服務企業的管理咨詢專家及培訓師,劉杰克老師將從柯達退市事件來與讀者就老牌企業的創新之道進行相關探討。

      一,不可沉溺于一時的成功,錯過創新時機

      柯達成立于1880年,柯達膠卷是世界上最成功的膠卷品牌之一,曾經地位堪比今日之蘋果,這位昔日的膠片業霸主,研制出了世界上第一版膠片和第一臺傻瓜相機。

      早在本世紀初,在由數字科技產生的數碼影像產品對傳統膠片影像市場開始帶來破壞式沖擊的時候,柯達卻依然滿足于傳統膠卷產品獲得的市場份額和市場壟斷地位,并未及時作出任何轉型和改變,時至今日,柯達賴以生存的膠卷產業的膠卷沖洗量卻已僅占數碼沖洗的5%。即使柯達在2005年提出轉型,但卻由于沒有及時調整公司經營戰略重心和部門結構,效果并不明顯,導致這位膠卷巨人錯過轉型的最佳時機。而作為柯達一生的敵人的富士膠片卻在激烈的市場競爭中脫穎而出,其深諳創新才能為企業創造新的活力之理,將技術創新作為企業的首要議題,使富士膠片在行業內率先度過了攝影膠片需求銳減的危機,成功實現數碼產業轉型。富士膠片利用不斷研發的新技術開始拓展新的市場,開始對相關領域,如影像、印刷等領域進行資本投入,成功邁向了新的成長軌道。

      曾為音像產品界巨頭的索尼公司,也曾成功的推出了在年輕族群中風靡的walkman系列產品,引領了一股“隨身聽”的熱潮,但因為digital music產業的出現,MP3,MP4等電子音樂格式的出現,walkman也迅速沒落,索尼錯過了在電子音樂設備領域的最佳創新時機。

      據劉杰克老師原創課程《營銷三維論》中的創新論,這些已經在原有市場上取得成功的大型企業所共同擔心的問題是,創新產品將會對那些現有產品的銷量產生負面影響。但已近36歲的蘋果就是一個不斷創新的成功例子,在喬布斯王者歸來后,從一個PC制造商,變為音樂播放器市場的領導者,再到手機市場的巨頭,現在在平板電腦領域也是先行者,蘋果一直沒有停下自己的步伐,每次推出新的產品都會有降低已有產品銷量的風險,但蘋果現在的成功卻告訴我們這樣的冒險值得嘗試。只有不斷的創新才能不斷激發消費者的消費熱情,提高消費者對自身品牌的忠誠度,才能永遠走在市場的前沿,立于優勢地位。

      二,不可盲目創新,要切合實際量力而行

      當代市場對求新的迷戀統治著我們的生活,也讓眾多老牌企業將“創新高于一切”的口號搬上了臺面,這種單純想靠形式上的創新來競爭的想法卻往往讓老牌企業忽略了創新的本質還是創造價值。劉杰克老師認為,一個好的點子未必是一個值得去投資的點子,一個好的點子在別的企業身上能發揮轉折性的關鍵作用卻未必能適用于每一個企業。老牌企業需要對未來市場的發展走勢有正確的預測和把握,客觀的審視企業的內部資源是否與環境機會相適應,仔細衡量利弊,在下定創新的決定之前需要做好清晰的研究與判斷。

      2002年,已在電腦市場有一席之地的惠普想要在電腦市場搶占更多的市場份額,花費重金收購了其競爭對手康柏。但由于電腦市場已經處于飽和狀態,而惠普也未能采取相應的策略將康柏很好的融入惠普,此次的創新之舉不但未給惠普帶去期望的新活力,反而帶來的是一時企業方向的迷失。而IBM則清晰的意識到電腦市場有限的利潤空間,將目光聚集到了軟件開發這個科技領域的高利潤市場,大膽的將曾為其帶來巨大收入的個人電腦產品部門出售給了聯想。之所以可以存活超過100年,IBM的對市場客觀的分析,對自身優勢和核心競爭力的堅持,為其大膽的創新之舉奠定了成功的基石。

      回看國內“老牌企業”,“健力寶”曾連續10年占據中國軟飲料年銷量第一的寶座,這個在中國飲料市場名噪一時的品牌,卻因為盲目多元化的創新模式而漸漸沒落。根據《營銷三維論》中的核心競爭力論,劉杰克老師認為,健力寶未考慮企業內部的資源合理配置,盲目的將品牌延伸至地產、醫藥、甚至是快餐領域,這一系列“自廢武功”的舉動使其 “主動”放棄了自身的核心競爭力,即打造了多年才在飲料市場取得的優勢地位,逐步淪為企業非主營業務的配角。這種對企業品牌組織結構近乎于毀滅性的創新,砸掉了“健力寶”的金字招牌,品牌也未能繼續存活。

      綜上所述,劉杰克老師認為,老牌企業終會經歷發展的起伏期,甚至衰落期,而在當今激烈變化的市場環境中,這個歷程可能會變的更短,留給企業做出應對策略的時間也會相應更少。老牌企業只有始終存有危機感,以積極和及時的態度面向市場趨勢的轉變,以企業內部條件為依托,以市場外部環境為導向,根據自身實力以及客觀市場環境等因素作出合理的創新舉動,才能得以延續其生命力,使企業不斷煥發出新的生機!

      作者介紹:劉杰克,著名營銷實戰專家、企業管理專家、戰略管理專家、連鎖加盟經營專家、企業培訓師及顧問;

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