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    運河城市與海港城市文化的融合---天津城市的性格
      時間:2009-1-7      來源:新浪博客    編輯:admin【字體: 】【收藏】【關閉
          “天津”這個地名出現于明朝永樂年間,永樂二年(公元1404),天津作為畿輔要地正式設衛〔衛所是明朝的軍事建置〕,于是為朱棣賜名“天津”,意思就是天子渡河的地方。故也有“天津衛”之稱。
          一座城市的性格離不開其地理位置,環境和歷史淵源的塑造。天津的母親河-----海河以及河岸碼頭的就了天津人獨特的性格:既有北方人的一些共有缺點:比如懶惰、好吹牛等,也有自己獨特的地方,給外地人印象較深的有熱情、愛面子、不思進取和不守規矩。
          天津現有人口約1000萬,面積近12000平方公里的土地上(天津市區約占百分之二)。一般人對幾個城市的印象大約如此:從前因為北京是“天子腳下”,所以封建、半封建氣息濃厚;上海則是有名的“十里洋場”,殖民地、半殖民地氣息濃厚;天津則是折中和混合型:華洋雜處,半封建半殖民地混合型的氣息濃厚。從天津舊城里嚴整方正的四合院與舊租界地爭新斗奇的小洋樓并存,就可以大致體會到
          天津初時,“民風相厚淳良”。明代開始,南方軍士北遷,“雜以閩、廣、吳、楚、齊、梁之民,風俗不甚淳一”;由于天津是軍衛之地,屯守的士兵將領拖家帶口駐扎,所以又形成 ‘勇武好斗’的民風。至清代,天津又逐步轉化成為北方商業重鎮,因而“民多以賈趨利”,“俗尚奢華”。第一次世界大戰后,從開租界,到成為中央直轄市又逐漸變化至今……。
          天津人講究吃,清末民初,有大飯莊七十余家;到20世紀30年代,天津的飯莊、飯館多達三百余家。天津菜以河海兩鮮為主,從前講究“八大碗”,美食則為“鴨翅(魚翅)席”、“燕(燕窩)翅席”。天津僅小吃花色就有500種,但知名度最高的,是狗不理包子,與十八街大麻花、耳朵眼炸糕,并稱三絕。
          說到三絕,在民間工藝品中,有線板手繪的楊柳青年畫;“泥人張”栩栩如生的彩塑人物,已由張明山傳到第五代張乃英;“風箏魏”的風箏。時鮮中也有三絕:銀魚、紫蟹、鐵雀。
          從衣食住行上,可看到天津傳統文化的特色:運河城市與海港城市文化的化合。應該說作為一個在碼頭城市里謀生的人,天津人好臉(同時也愛護短),好打哈哈取樂。盛產以語言表達見長的名人;同時沉淀在城市文化和城市性格中可以稱之為基因缺陷的東西也一直在歷史的脈絡中若隱若現,比如長期形成的四平八穩、小富即安的心理惰性;比如時常出現的一葉障目、過分瑣碎、不看大勢、牢騷太盛、捕風捉影的粗糙;再加上計劃經濟甚至小農經濟根深蒂固的影響,怕冒尖、愛削尖的頑癥形成的那種不宜于創新、扼制一流的氛圍。這些都使天津的城市競爭力直接或間接地受到影響。
          有一個關于天津人的段子,說大學宿舍里住了六個人,湖南人晚上點蠟把書翻得嘩嘩響,影響大家休息。沒幾天,兩個東北人也買來蠟點上,自顧自地看書、聊天、打牌;廣東人掛起厚厚的簾子,自己干自己的事,或是睡覺,或是看書;天津人則有一搭沒一搭地跟他們聊幾句,困了就側過臉,用被子蒙上頭,盡力睡自己的,大不了說一句“我睡覺了,你們別聊天了”。也不管他們聽不聽,自己努力去睡覺,或許直到別人聊完天,打上呼嚕了,他還沒睡著。他心里雖然不舒服,卻沒有想過要改變這種不合理的現狀,也沒有認為別人侵害了他應有的利益,要據理力爭。他沒有“你橫,我比你更橫”的東北人的勁兒,也沒有廣東人私下里的狠勁兒。廣東人可能表面上不說湖南人,但心里記著湖南人欠了他的,非得在別的事上撈回來。東北人心里舒坦的是“你吵,我比你還熱鬧。”可天津人忍著一肚子氣,沒有讓那些損害他利益的人覺得慚愧,也沒有設法去改變現狀。
          遇著不公平,天津人不是尋找真正的公平,而是尋找讓自己能夠接受的方式。這種文化產生不了有益的競爭,也就激發不了那種沿襲了多少年的惰性,最終難以促進經濟的健康、有序發展。
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